collection – Collection level operations

Collection level utilities for Mongo.

pymongo.ASCENDING = 1

Ascending sort order.

pymongo.DESCENDING = -1

Descending sort order.

pymongo.GEO2D = '2d'

Index specifier for a 2-dimensional geospatial index.

pymongo.GEOHAYSTACK = 'geoHaystack'

Index specifier for a 2-dimensional haystack index.

New in version 2.1.

pymongo.GEOSPHERE = '2dsphere'

Index specifier for a spherical geospatial index.

New in version 2.5.

Note

2dsphere indexing requires server version >= 2.4.0.

pymongo.HASHED = 'hashed'

Index specifier for a hashed index.

New in version 2.5.

Note

hashed indexing requires server version >= 2.4.0.

pymongo.TEXT = 'text'

Index specifier for a text index.

New in version 2.7.1.

Note

text search requires server version >= 2.4.0.

class pymongo.collection.ReturnDocument

An enum used with find_one_and_replace() and find_one_and_update().

BEFORE

Return the original document before it was updated/replaced, or None if no document matches the query.

AFTER

Return the updated/replaced or inserted document.

class pymongo.collection.Collection(database, name, create=False, **kwargs)

Get / create a Mongo collection.

Raises TypeError if name is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3). Raises InvalidName if name is not a valid collection name. Any additional keyword arguments will be used as options passed to the create command. See create_collection() for valid options.

If create is True or additional keyword arguments are present a create command will be sent. Otherwise, a create command will not be sent and the collection will be created implicitly on first use.

Parameters:
  • database: the database to get a collection from
  • name: the name of the collection to get
  • create (optional): if True, force collection creation even without options being set
  • codec_options (optional): An instance of CodecOptions. If None (the default) database.codec_options is used.
  • read_preference (optional): The read preference to use. If None (the default) database.read_preference is used.
  • write_concern (optional): An instance of WriteConcern. If None (the default) database.write_concern is used.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional keyword arguments will be passed as options for the create collection command

Changed in version 3.0: Added the codec_options, read_preference, and write_concern options. Removed the uuid_subtype attribute. Collection no longer returns an instance of Collection for attribute names with leading underscores. You must use dict-style lookups instead::

collection[‘__my_collection__’]

Not:

collection.__my_collection__

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated argument: options

New in version 2.1: uuid_subtype attribute

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

collections

c[name] || c.name

Get the name sub-collection of Collection c.

Raises InvalidName if an invalid collection name is used.

full_name

The full name of this Collection.

The full name is of the form database_name.collection_name.

name

The name of this Collection.

database

The Database that this Collection is a part of.

codec_options

Read only access to the CodecOptions of this instance.

read_preference

Read only access to the read preference of this instance.

Changed in version 3.0: The read_preference attribute is now read only.

write_concern

Read only access to the WriteConcern of this instance.

Changed in version 3.0: The write_concern attribute is now read only.

with_options(codec_options=None, read_preference=None, write_concern=None)

Get a clone of this collection changing the specified settings.

>>> coll1.read_preference
Primary()
>>> from pymongo import ReadPreference
>>> coll2 = coll.with_options(read_preference=ReadPreference.SECONDARY)
>>> coll1.read_preference
Primary()
>>> coll2.read_preference
Secondary(tag_sets=None)
Parameters:
bulk_write(requests, ordered=True)

Send a batch of write operations to the server.

Requests are passed as a list of write operation instances ( InsertOne, UpdateOne, UpdateMany, ReplaceOne, DeleteOne, or DeleteMany).

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634ef')}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634f0')}
>>> # DeleteMany, UpdateOne, and UpdateMany are also available.
...
>>> from pymongo import InsertOne, DeleteOne, ReplaceOne
>>> requests = [InsertOne({'y': 1}), DeleteOne({'x': 1}),
...             ReplaceOne({'w': 1}, {'z': 1}, upsert=True)]
>>> result = db.test.bulk_write(requests)
>>> result.inserted_count
1
>>> result.deleted_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
0
>>> result.upserted_ids
{2: ObjectId('54f62ee28891e756a6e1abd5')}
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62e60fba5226811f634f0')}
{u'y': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62ee2fba5226811f634f1')}
{u'z': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f62ee28891e756a6e1abd5')}
Parameters:
  • requests: A list of write operations (see examples above).
  • ordered (optional): If True (the default) requests will be performed on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining operations are aborted. If False requests will be performed on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel, and all operations will be attempted.
Returns:

An instance of BulkWriteResult.

New in version 3.0.

insert_one(document)

Insert a single document.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
0
>>> result = db.test.insert_one({'x': 1})
>>> result.inserted_id
ObjectId('54f112defba522406c9cc208')
>>> db.test.find_one({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f112defba522406c9cc208')}
Parameters:
  • document: The document to insert. Must be a mutable mapping type. If the document does not have an _id field one will be added automatically.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

insert_many(documents, ordered=True)

Insert a list of documents.

>>> db.test.count()
0
>>> result = db.test.insert_many([{'x': i} for i in range(2)])
>>> result.inserted_ids
[ObjectId('54f113fffba522406c9cc20e'), ObjectId('54f113fffba522406c9cc20f')]
>>> db.test.count()
2
Parameters:
  • documents: A list of documents to insert.
  • ordered (optional): If True (the default) documents will be inserted on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining inserts are aborted. If False, documents will be inserted on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel, and all document inserts will be attempted.
Returns:

An instance of InsertManyResult.

New in version 3.0.

replace_one(filter, replacement, upsert=False)

Replace a single document matching the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4c5befba5220aa4d6dee7')}
>>> result = db.test.replace_one({'x': 1}, {'y': 1})
>>> result.matched_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
1
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'y': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4c5befba5220aa4d6dee7')}

The upsert option can be used to insert a new document if a matching document does not exist.

>>> result = db.test.replace_one({'x': 1}, {'x': 1}, True)
>>> result.matched_count
0
>>> result.modified_count
0
>>> result.upserted_id
ObjectId('54f11e5c8891e756a6e1abd4')
>>> db.test.find_one({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f11e5c8891e756a6e1abd4')}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to replace.
  • replacement: The new document.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

update_one(filter, update, upsert=False)

Update a single document matching the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> result = db.test.update_one({'x': 1}, {'$inc': {'x': 3}})
>>> result.matched_count
1
>>> result.modified_count
1
>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to update.
  • update: The modifications to apply.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

update_many(filter, update, upsert=False)

Update one or more documents that match the filter.

>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> result = db.test.update_many({'x': 1}, {'$inc': {'x': 3}})
>>> result.matched_count
3
>>> result.modified_count
3
>>> for doc in db.test.find():
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 4, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the documents to update.
  • update: The modifications to apply.
  • upsert (optional): If True, perform an insert if no documents match the filter.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

delete_one(filter)

Delete a single document matching the filter.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
3
>>> result = db.test.delete_one({'x': 1})
>>> result.deleted_count
1
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
2
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to delete.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

delete_many(filter)

Delete one or more documents matching the filter.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
3
>>> result = db.test.delete_many({'x': 1})
>>> result.deleted_count
3
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
0
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the documents to delete.
Returns:

New in version 3.0.

aggregate(pipeline, **kwargs)

Perform an aggregation using the aggregation framework on this collection.

All optional aggregate parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include, but are not limited to:

  • allowDiskUse (bool): Enables writing to temporary files. When set to True, aggregation stages can write data to the _tmp subdirectory of the –dbpath directory. The default is False.
  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the operation to run in milliseconds.
  • batchSize (int): The maximum number of documents to return per batch. Ignored if the connected mongod or mongos does not support returning aggregate results using a cursor, or useCursor is False.
  • useCursor (bool): Requests that the server provide results using a cursor, if possible. Ignored if the connected mongod or mongos does not support returning aggregate results using a cursor. The default is True. Set this to False when upgrading a 2.4 or older sharded cluster to 2.6 or newer (see the warning below).

The aggregate() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection. Please note that using the $out pipeline stage requires a read preference of PRIMARY (the default). The server will raise an error if the $out pipeline stage is used with any other read preference.

Warning

When upgrading a 2.4 or older sharded cluster to 2.6 or newer the useCursor option must be set to False until all shards have been upgraded to 2.6 or newer.

Note

This method does not support the ‘explain’ option. Please use command() instead. An example is included in the Aggregation Framework documentation.

Parameters:
  • pipeline: a list of aggregation pipeline stages
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.
Returns:

A CommandCursor over the result set.

Changed in version 3.0: The aggregate() method always returns a CommandCursor. The pipeline argument must be a list.

Changed in version 2.7: When the cursor option is used, return CommandCursor instead of Cursor.

Changed in version 2.6: Added cursor support.

New in version 2.3.

find(filter=None, projection=None, skip=0, limit=0, no_cursor_timeout=False, cursor_type=CursorType.NON_TAILABLE, sort=None, allow_partial_results=False, oplog_replay=False, modifiers=None, manipulate=True)

Query the database.

The filter argument is a prototype document that all results must match. For example:

>>> db.test.find({"hello": "world"})

only matches documents that have a key “hello” with value “world”. Matches can have other keys in addition to “hello”. The projection argument is used to specify a subset of fields that should be included in the result documents. By limiting results to a certain subset of fields you can cut down on network traffic and decoding time.

Raises TypeError if any of the arguments are of improper type. Returns an instance of Cursor corresponding to this query.

The find() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): a SON object specifying elements which must be present for a document to be included in the result set
  • projection (optional): a list of field names that should be returned in the result set or a dict specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a dict to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • skip (optional): the number of documents to omit (from the start of the result set) when returning the results
  • limit (optional): the maximum number of results to return
  • no_cursor_timeout (optional): if False (the default), any returned cursor is closed by the server after 10 minutes of inactivity. If set to True, the returned cursor will never time out on the server. Care should be taken to ensure that cursors with no_cursor_timeout turned on are properly closed.
  • cursor_type (optional): the type of cursor to return. The valid options are defined by CursorType:
    • NON_TAILABLE - the result of this find call will return a standard cursor over the result set.
    • TAILABLE - the result of this find call will be a tailable cursor - tailable cursors are only for use with capped collections. They are not closed when the last data is retrieved but are kept open and the cursor location marks the final document position. If more data is received iteration of the cursor will continue from the last document received. For details, see the tailable cursor documentation.
    • TAILABLE_AWAIT - the result of this find call will be a tailable cursor with the await flag set. The server will wait for a few seconds after returning the full result set so that it can capture and return additional data added during the query.
    • EXHAUST - the result of this find call will be an exhaust cursor. MongoDB will stream batched results to the client without waiting for the client to request each batch, reducing latency. See notes on compatibility below.
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for this query. See sort() for details.
  • allow_partial_results (optional): if True, mongos will return partial results if some shards are down instead of returning an error.
  • oplog_replay (optional): If True, set the oplogReplay query flag.
  • modifiers (optional): A dict specifying the MongoDB query modifiers that should be used for this query.
  • batch_size (optional): Limits the number of documents returned in a single batch.
  • manipulate (optional): DEPRECATED - If True (the default), apply any outgoing SON manipulators before returning.

Note

There are a number of caveats to using EXHAUST as cursor_type:

  • The limit option can not be used with an exhaust cursor.
  • Exhaust cursors are not supported by mongos and can not be used with a sharded cluster.
  • A Cursor instance created with the EXHAUST cursor_type requires an exclusive socket connection to MongoDB. If the Cursor is discarded without being completely iterated the underlying socket connection will be closed and discarded without being returned to the connection pool.

Changed in version 3.0: Changed the parameter names spec, fields, timeout, and partial to filter, projection, no_cursor_timeout, and allow_partial_results respectively. Added the cursor_type, oplog_replay, and modifiers options. Removed the network_timeout, read_preference, tag_sets, secondary_acceptable_latency_ms, max_scan, snapshot, tailable, await_data, exhaust, as_class, and slave_okay parameters. Removed compile_re option: PyMongo now always represents BSON regular expressions as Regex objects. Use try_compile() to attempt to convert from a BSON regular expression to a Python regular expression object. Soft deprecated the manipulate option.

Changed in version 2.7: Added compile_re option. If set to False, PyMongo represented BSON regular expressions as Regex objects instead of attempting to compile BSON regular expressions as Python native regular expressions, thus preventing errors for some incompatible patterns, see PYTHON-500.

New in version 2.3: The tag_sets and secondary_acceptable_latency_ms parameters.

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

find

find_one(filter_or_id=None, *args, **kwargs)

Get a single document from the database.

All arguments to find() are also valid arguments for find_one(), although any limit argument will be ignored. Returns a single document, or None if no matching document is found.

The find_one() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): a dictionary specifying the query to be performed OR any other type to be used as the value for a query for "_id".

  • *args (optional): any additional positional arguments are the same as the arguments to find().

  • **kwargs (optional): any additional keyword arguments are the same as the arguments to find().

  • max_time_ms (optional): a value for max_time_ms may be specified as part of **kwargs, e.g.

    >>> find_one(max_time_ms=100)
    
find_one_and_delete(filter, projection=None, sort=None, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and deletes it, returning the document.

>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
2
>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete({'x': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': ObjectId('54f4e12bfba5220aa4d6dee8')}
>>> db.test.count({'x': 1})
1

If multiple documents match filter, a sort can be applied.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({'x': 1}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete(
...     {'x': 1}, sort=[('_id', pymongo.DESCENDING)])
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}

The projection option can be used to limit the fields returned.

>>> db.test.find_one_and_delete({'x': 1}, projection={'_id': False})
{u'x': 1}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to delete.
  • projection (optional): a list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a mapping to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is deleted.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

New in version 3.0.

find_one_and_replace(filter, replacement, projection=None, sort=None, return_document=ReturnDocument.BEFORE, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and replaces it, returning either the original or the replaced document.

The find_one_and_replace() method differs from find_one_and_update() by replacing the document matched by filter, rather than modifying the existing document.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_replace({'x': 1}, {'y': 1})
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 0}
>>> for doc in db.test.find({}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'y': 1, u'_id': 0}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 1}
{u'x': 1, u'_id': 2}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to replace.
  • replacement: The replacement document.
  • projection (optional): A list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a mapping to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is replaced.
  • upsert (optional): When True, inserts a new document if no document matches the query. Defaults to False.
  • return_document: If ReturnDocument.BEFORE (the default), returns the original document before it was replaced, or None if no document matches. If ReturnDocument.AFTER, returns the replaced or inserted document.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

New in version 3.0.

find_one_and_update(filter, update, projection=None, sort=None, return_document=ReturnDocument.BEFORE, **kwargs)

Finds a single document and updates it, returning either the original or the updated document.

>>> db.test.find_one_and_update(
...    {'_id': 665}, {'$inc': {'count': 1}, '$set': {'done': True}})
{u'_id': 665, u'done': False, u'count': 25}}

By default find_one_and_update() returns the original version of the document before the update was applied. To return the updated version of the document instead, use the return_document option.

>>> from pymongo import ReturnDocument
>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'_id': u'userid', u'seq': 1}

You can limit the fields returned with the projection option.

>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     projection={'seq': True, '_id': False},
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'seq': 2}

The upsert option can be used to create the document if it doesn’t already exist.

>>> db.example.delete_many({}).deleted_count
1
>>> db.example.find_one_and_update(
...     {'_id': 'userid'},
...     {'$inc': {'seq': 1}},
...     projection={'seq': True, '_id': False},
...     upsert=True,
...     return_document=ReturnDocument.AFTER)
{u'seq': 1}

If multiple documents match filter, a sort can be applied.

>>> for doc in db.test.find({'done': True}):
...     print(doc)
...
{u'_id': 665, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 26}}
{u'_id': 701, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 17}}
>>> db.test.find_one_and_update(
...     {'done': True},
...     {'$set': {'final': True}},
...     sort=[('_id', pymongo.DESCENDING)])
{u'_id': 701, u'done': True, u'result': {u'count': 17}}
Parameters:
  • filter: A query that matches the document to update.
  • update: The update operations to apply.
  • projection (optional): A list of field names that should be returned in the result document or a mapping specifying the fields to include or exclude. If projection is a list “_id” will always be returned. Use a dict to exclude fields from the result (e.g. projection={‘_id’: False}).
  • sort (optional): a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the sort order for the query. If multiple documents match the query, they are sorted and the first is updated.
  • upsert (optional): When True, inserts a new document if no document matches the query. Defaults to False.
  • return_document: If ReturnDocument.BEFORE (the default), returns the original document before it was updated, or None if no document matches. If ReturnDocument.AFTER, returns the updated or inserted document.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional command arguments can be passed as keyword arguments (for example maxTimeMS can be used with recent server versions).

New in version 3.0.

count(filter=None, **kwargs)

Get the number of documents in this collection.

All optional count parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include:

  • hint (string or list of tuples): The index to use. Specify either the index name as a string or the index specification as a list of tuples (e.g. [(‘a’, pymongo.ASCENDING), (‘b’, pymongo.ASCENDING)]).
  • limit (int): The maximum number of documents to count.
  • skip (int): The number of matching documents to skip before returning results.
  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the count command to run, in milliseconds.

The count() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • filter (optional): A query document that selects which documents to count in the collection.
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.
distinct(key, filter=None, **kwargs)

Get a list of distinct values for key among all documents in this collection.

Raises TypeError if key is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3).

All optional distinct parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Valid options include:

  • maxTimeMS (int): The maximum amount of time to allow the count command to run, in milliseconds.

The distinct() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • key: name of the field for which we want to get the distinct values
  • filter (optional): A query document that specifies the documents from which to retrieve the distinct values.
  • **kwargs (optional): See list of options above.
create_index(keys, **kwargs)

Creates an index on this collection.

Takes either a single key or a list of (key, direction) pairs. The key(s) must be an instance of basestring (str in python 3), and the direction(s) must be one of (ASCENDING, DESCENDING, GEO2D, GEOHAYSTACK, GEOSPHERE, HASHED, TEXT).

To create a single key ascending index on the key 'mike' we just use a string argument:

>>> my_collection.create_index("mike")

For a compound index on 'mike' descending and 'eliot' ascending we need to use a list of tuples:

>>> my_collection.create_index([("mike", pymongo.DESCENDING),
...                             ("eliot", pymongo.ASCENDING)])

All optional index creation parameters should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. For example:

>>> my_collection.create_index([("mike", pymongo.DESCENDING)],
...                            background=True)

Valid options include, but are not limited to:

  • name: custom name to use for this index - if none is given, a name will be generated.
  • unique: if True creates a uniqueness constraint on the index.
  • background: if True this index should be created in the background.
  • sparse: if True, omit from the index any documents that lack the indexed field.
  • bucketSize: for use with geoHaystack indexes. Number of documents to group together within a certain proximity to a given longitude and latitude.
  • min: minimum value for keys in a GEO2D index.
  • max: maximum value for keys in a GEO2D index.
  • expireAfterSeconds: <int> Used to create an expiring (TTL) collection. MongoDB will automatically delete documents from this collection after <int> seconds. The indexed field must be a UTC datetime or the data will not expire.

See the MongoDB documentation for a full list of supported options by server version.

Warning

dropDups is not supported by MongoDB 2.7.5 or newer. The option is silently ignored by the server and unique index builds using the option will fail if a duplicate value is detected.

Note

expireAfterSeconds requires server version >= 2.2

Parameters:
  • keys: a single key or a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the index to create
  • **kwargs (optional): any additional index creation options (see the above list) should be passed as keyword arguments

Changed in version 3.0: Renamed key_or_list to keys. Removed the cache_for option. create_index() no longer caches index names. Removed support for the drop_dups and bucket_size aliases.

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

indexes

create_indexes(indexes)

Create one or more indexes on this collection.

>>> from pymongo import IndexModel, ASCENDING, DESCENDING
>>> index1 = IndexModel([("hello", DESCENDING),
...                      ("world", ASCENDING)], name="hello_world")
>>> index2 = IndexModel([("goodbye", DESCENDING)])
>>> db.test.create_indexes([index1, index2])
["hello_world"]
Parameters:

Note

create_indexes uses the createIndexes command introduced in MongoDB 2.6 and cannot be used with earlier versions.

New in version 3.0.

drop_index(index_or_name)

Drops the specified index on this collection.

Can be used on non-existant collections or collections with no indexes. Raises OperationFailure on an error (e.g. trying to drop an index that does not exist). index_or_name can be either an index name (as returned by create_index), or an index specifier (as passed to create_index). An index specifier should be a list of (key, direction) pairs. Raises TypeError if index is not an instance of (str, unicode, list).

Warning

if a custom name was used on index creation (by passing the name parameter to create_index() or ensure_index()) the index must be dropped by name.

Parameters:
  • index_or_name: index (or name of index) to drop
drop_indexes()

Drops all indexes on this collection.

Can be used on non-existant collections or collections with no indexes. Raises OperationFailure on an error.

reindex()

Rebuilds all indexes on this collection.

Warning

reindex blocks all other operations (indexes are built in the foreground) and will be slow for large collections.

list_indexes()

Get a cursor over the index documents for this collection.

>>> for index in db.test.list_indexes():
...     print(index)
...
SON([(u'v', 1), (u'key', SON([(u'_id', 1)])),
     (u'name', u'_id_'), (u'ns', u'test.test')])
Returns:An instance of CommandCursor.

New in version 3.0.

index_information()

Get information on this collection’s indexes.

Returns a dictionary where the keys are index names (as returned by create_index()) and the values are dictionaries containing information about each index. The dictionary is guaranteed to contain at least a single key, "key" which is a list of (key, direction) pairs specifying the index (as passed to create_index()). It will also contain any other metadata about the indexes, except for the "ns" and "name" keys, which are cleaned. Example output might look like this:

>>> db.test.ensure_index("x", unique=True)
u'x_1'
>>> db.test.index_information()
{u'_id_': {u'key': [(u'_id', 1)]},
 u'x_1': {u'unique': True, u'key': [(u'x', 1)]}}
drop()

Alias for drop_collection().

The following two calls are equivalent:

>>> db.foo.drop()
>>> db.drop_collection("foo")
rename(new_name, **kwargs)

Rename this collection.

If operating in auth mode, client must be authorized as an admin to perform this operation. Raises TypeError if new_name is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3). Raises InvalidName if new_name is not a valid collection name.

Parameters:
  • new_name: new name for this collection
  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the rename command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method (i.e. dropTarget=True)
options()

Get the options set on this collection.

Returns a dictionary of options and their values - see create_collection() for more information on the possible options. Returns an empty dictionary if the collection has not been created yet.

group(key, condition, initial, reduce, finalize=None, **kwargs)

Perform a query similar to an SQL group by operation.

Returns an array of grouped items.

The key parameter can be:

  • None to use the entire document as a key.
  • A list of keys (each a basestring (str in python 3)) to group by.
  • A basestring (str in python 3), or Code instance containing a JavaScript function to be applied to each document, returning the key to group by.

The group() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • key: fields to group by (see above description)
  • condition: specification of rows to be considered (as a find() query specification)
  • initial: initial value of the aggregation counter object
  • reduce: aggregation function as a JavaScript string
  • finalize: function to be called on each object in output list.
  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the group command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated argument: command

map_reduce(map, reduce, out, full_response=False, **kwargs)

Perform a map/reduce operation on this collection.

If full_response is False (default) returns a Collection instance containing the results of the operation. Otherwise, returns the full response from the server to the map reduce command.

Parameters:
  • map: map function (as a JavaScript string)

  • reduce: reduce function (as a JavaScript string)

  • out: output collection name or out object (dict). See the map reduce command documentation for available options. Note: out options are order sensitive. SON can be used to specify multiple options. e.g. SON([(‘replace’, <collection name>), (‘db’, <database name>)])

  • full_response (optional): if True, return full response to this command - otherwise just return the result collection

  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the map reduce command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method, e.g.:

    >>> db.test.map_reduce(map, reduce, "myresults", limit=2)
    

Note

The map_reduce() method does not obey the read_preference of this Collection. To run mapReduce on a secondary use the inline_map_reduce() method instead.

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated arguments: merge_output and reduce_output

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

mapreduce

inline_map_reduce(map, reduce, full_response=False, **kwargs)

Perform an inline map/reduce operation on this collection.

Perform the map/reduce operation on the server in RAM. A result collection is not created. The result set is returned as a list of documents.

If full_response is False (default) returns the result documents in a list. Otherwise, returns the full response from the server to the map reduce command.

The inline_map_reduce() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • map: map function (as a JavaScript string)

  • reduce: reduce function (as a JavaScript string)

  • full_response (optional): if True, return full response to this command - otherwise just return the result collection

  • **kwargs (optional): additional arguments to the map reduce command may be passed as keyword arguments to this helper method, e.g.:

    >>> db.test.inline_map_reduce(map, reduce, limit=2)
    
parallel_scan(num_cursors)

Scan this entire collection in parallel.

Returns a list of up to num_cursors cursors that can be iterated concurrently. As long as the collection is not modified during scanning, each document appears once in one of the cursors result sets.

For example, to process each document in a collection using some thread-safe process_document() function:

>>> def process_cursor(cursor):
...     for document in cursor:
...     # Some thread-safe processing function:
...     process_document(document)
>>>
>>> # Get up to 4 cursors.
...
>>> cursors = collection.parallel_scan(4)
>>> threads = [
...     threading.Thread(target=process_cursor, args=(cursor,))
...     for cursor in cursors]
>>>
>>> for thread in threads:
...     thread.start()
>>>
>>> for thread in threads:
...     thread.join()
>>>
>>> # All documents have now been processed.

The parallel_scan() method obeys the read_preference of this Collection.

Parameters:
  • num_cursors: the number of cursors to return

Note

Requires server version >= 2.5.5.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed support for arbitrary keyword arguments, since the parallelCollectionScan command has no optional arguments.

initialize_unordered_bulk_op()

Initialize an unordered batch of write operations.

Operations will be performed on the server in arbitrary order, possibly in parallel. All operations will be attempted.

Returns a BulkOperationBuilder instance.

See Unordered Bulk Write Operations for examples.

New in version 2.7.

initialize_ordered_bulk_op()

Initialize an ordered batch of write operations.

Operations will be performed on the server serially, in the order provided. If an error occurs all remaining operations are aborted.

Returns a BulkOperationBuilder instance.

See Ordered Bulk Write Operations for examples.

New in version 2.7.

insert(doc_or_docs, manipulate=True, check_keys=True, continue_on_error=False, **kwargs)

Insert a document(s) into this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use insert_one() or insert_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

save(to_save, manipulate=True, check_keys=True, **kwargs)

Save a document in this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use insert_one() or replace_one() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

update(spec, document, upsert=False, manipulate=False, multi=False, check_keys=True, **kwargs)

Update a document(s) in this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use replace_one(), update_one(), or update_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

remove(spec_or_id=None, multi=True, **kwargs)

Remove a document(s) from this collection.

DEPRECATED - Use delete_one() or delete_many() instead.

Changed in version 3.0: Removed the safe parameter. Pass w=0 for unacknowledged write operations.

find_and_modify(query={}, update=None, upsert=False, sort=None, full_response=False, manipulate=False, **kwargs)

Update and return an object.

DEPRECATED - Use find_one_and_delete(), find_one_and_replace(), or find_one_and_update() instead.

ensure_index(key_or_list, cache_for=300, **kwargs)

DEPRECATED - Ensures that an index exists on this collection.

Changed in version 3.0: DEPRECATED

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