database – Database level operations

Database level operations.

pymongo.auth.MECHANISMS = frozenset(['MONGODB-X509', 'DEFAULT', 'PLAIN', 'GSSAPI', 'MONGODB-CR', 'SCRAM-SHA-1'])

The authentication mechanisms supported by PyMongo.

pymongo.OFF = 0

No database profiling.

pymongo.SLOW_ONLY = 1

Only profile slow operations.

pymongo.ALL = 2

Profile all operations.

class pymongo.database.Database(connection, name)

Get a database by connection and name.

Raises TypeError if name is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3). Raises InvalidName if name is not a valid database name.

Parameters:
  • connection: a client instance
  • name: database name

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

databases

db[collection_name] || db.collection_name

Get the collection_name Collection of Database db.

Raises InvalidName if an invalid collection name is used.

Note

Use dictionary style access if collection_name is an attribute of the Database class eg: db[collection_name].

read_preference

The read preference mode for this instance.

See ReadPreference for available options.

New in version 2.1.

tag_sets

Set tag_sets to a list of dictionaries like [{‘dc’: ‘ny’}] to read only from members whose dc tag has the value "ny". To specify a priority-order for tag sets, provide a list of tag sets: [{'dc': 'ny'}, {'dc': 'la'}, {}]. A final, empty tag set, {}, means “read from any member that matches the mode, ignoring tags.” ReplicaSetConnection tries each set of tags in turn until it finds a set of tags with at least one matching member.

New in version 2.3.

secondary_acceptable_latency_ms

Any replica-set member whose ping time is within secondary_acceptable_latency_ms of the nearest member may accept reads. Defaults to 15 milliseconds.

See ReadPreference.

New in version 2.3.

Note

secondary_acceptable_latency_ms is ignored when talking to a replica set through a mongos. The equivalent is the localThreshold command line option.

write_concern

The default write concern for this instance.

Supports dict style access for getting/setting write concern options. Valid options include:

  • w: (integer or string) If this is a replica set, write operations will block until they have been replicated to the specified number or tagged set of servers. w=<int> always includes the replica set primary (e.g. w=3 means write to the primary and wait until replicated to two secondaries). Setting w=0 disables write acknowledgement and all other write concern options.
  • wtimeout: (integer) Used in conjunction with w. Specify a value in milliseconds to control how long to wait for write propagation to complete. If replication does not complete in the given timeframe, a timeout exception is raised.
  • j: If True block until write operations have been committed to the journal. Cannot be used in combination with fsync. Prior to MongoDB 2.6 this option was ignored if the server was running without journaling. Starting with MongoDB 2.6 write operations will fail with an exception if this option is used when the server is running without journaling.
  • fsync: If True and the server is running without journaling, blocks until the server has synced all data files to disk. If the server is running with journaling, this acts the same as the j option, blocking until write operations have been committed to the journal. Cannot be used in combination with j.
>>> m = pymongo.MongoClient()
>>> m.write_concern
{}
>>> m.write_concern = {'w': 2, 'wtimeout': 1000}
>>> m.write_concern
{'wtimeout': 1000, 'w': 2}
>>> m.write_concern['j'] = True
>>> m.write_concern
{'wtimeout': 1000, 'j': True, 'w': 2}
>>> m.write_concern = {'j': True}
>>> m.write_concern
{'j': True}
>>> # Disable write acknowledgement and write concern
...
>>> m.write_concern['w'] = 0

Note

Accessing write_concern returns its value (a subclass of dict), not a copy.

Warning

If you are using Connection or ReplicaSetConnection make sure you explicitly set w to 1 (or a greater value) or safe to True. Unlike calling set_lasterror_options(), setting an option in write_concern does not implicitly set safe to True.

uuid_subtype

This attribute specifies which BSON Binary subtype is used when storing UUIDs. Historically UUIDs have been stored as BSON Binary subtype 3. This attribute is used to switch to the newer BSON Binary subtype 4. It can also be used to force legacy byte order and subtype compatibility with the Java and C# drivers. See the bson.binary module for all options.

slave_okay

DEPRECATED. Use read_preference instead.

Changed in version 2.1: Deprecated slave_okay.

New in version 2.0.

safe

DEPRECATED: Use the ‘w’ write_concern option instead.

Use getlasterror with every write operation?

New in version 2.0.

get_lasterror_options()

DEPRECATED: Use write_concern instead.

Returns a dict of the getlasterror options set on this instance.

Changed in version 2.4: Deprecated get_lasterror_options.

New in version 2.0.

set_lasterror_options(**kwargs)

DEPRECATED: Use write_concern instead.

Set getlasterror options for this instance.

Valid options include j=<bool>, w=<int/string>, wtimeout=<int>, and fsync=<bool>. Implies safe=True.

Parameters:
  • **kwargs: Options should be passed as keyword

    arguments (e.g. w=2, fsync=True)

Changed in version 2.4: Deprecated set_lasterror_options.

New in version 2.0.

unset_lasterror_options(*options)

DEPRECATED: Use write_concern instead.

Unset getlasterror options for this instance.

If no options are passed unsets all getlasterror options. This does not set safe to False.

Parameters:
  • *options: The list of options to unset.

Changed in version 2.4: Deprecated unset_lasterror_options.

New in version 2.0.

add_son_manipulator(manipulator)

Add a new son manipulator to this database.

Newly added manipulators will be applied before existing ones.

Parameters:
  • manipulator: the manipulator to add
add_user(name, password=None, read_only=None, **kwargs)

Create user name with password password.

Add a new user with permissions for this Database.

Note

Will change the password if user name already exists.

Parameters:
  • name: the name of the user to create
  • password (optional): the password of the user to create. Can not be used with the userSource argument.
  • read_only (optional): if True the user will be read only
  • **kwargs (optional): optional fields for the user document (e.g. userSource, otherDBRoles, or roles). See http://docs.mongodb.org/manual/reference/privilege-documents for more information.

Note

The use of optional keyword arguments like userSource, otherDBRoles, or roles requires MongoDB >= 2.4.0

Changed in version 2.5: Added kwargs support for optional fields introduced in MongoDB 2.4

Changed in version 2.2: Added support for read only users

New in version 1.4.

authenticate(name, password=None, source=None, mechanism='DEFAULT', **kwargs)

Authenticate to use this database.

Authentication lasts for the life of the underlying client instance, or until logout() is called.

Raises TypeError if (required) name, (optional) password, or (optional) source is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3).

Note

  • This method authenticates the current connection, and will also cause all new socket connections in the underlying client instance to be authenticated automatically.
  • Authenticating more than once on the same database with different credentials is not supported. You must call logout() before authenticating with new credentials.
  • When sharing a client instance between multiple threads, all threads will share the authentication. If you need different authentication profiles for different purposes you must use distinct client instances.
  • To get authentication to apply immediately to all existing sockets you may need to reset this client instance’s sockets using disconnect().
Parameters:
  • name: the name of the user to authenticate.
  • password (optional): the password of the user to authenticate. Not used with GSSAPI or MONGODB-X509 authentication.
  • source (optional): the database to authenticate on. If not specified the current database is used.
  • mechanism (optional): See MECHANISMS for options. By default, use SCRAM-SHA-1 with MongoDB 2.8 and later, MONGODB-CR (MongoDB Challenge Response protocol) for older servers.
  • gssapiServiceName (optional): Used with the GSSAPI mechanism to specify the service name portion of the service principal name. Defaults to ‘mongodb’.

New in version 2.8: Use SCRAM-SHA-1 with MongoDB 2.8 and later.

Changed in version 2.5: Added the source and mechanism parameters. authenticate() now raises a subclass of PyMongoError if authentication fails due to invalid credentials or configuration issues.

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

authenticate

collection_names(include_system_collections=True)

Get a list of all the collection names in this database.

Parameters:
  • include_system_collections (optional): if False list will not include system collections (e.g system.indexes)
command(command, value=1, check=True, allowable_errors=, []uuid_subtype=3, compile_re=True, **kwargs)

Issue a MongoDB command.

Send command command to the database and return the response. If command is an instance of basestring (str in python 3) then the command {command: value} will be sent. Otherwise, command must be an instance of dict and will be sent as is.

Any additional keyword arguments will be added to the final command document before it is sent.

For example, a command like {buildinfo: 1} can be sent using:

>>> db.command("buildinfo")

For a command where the value matters, like {collstats: collection_name} we can do:

>>> db.command("collstats", collection_name)

For commands that take additional arguments we can use kwargs. So {filemd5: object_id, root: file_root} becomes:

>>> db.command("filemd5", object_id, root=file_root)
Parameters:
  • command: document representing the command to be issued, or the name of the command (for simple commands only).

    Note

    the order of keys in the command document is significant (the “verb” must come first), so commands which require multiple keys (e.g. findandmodify) should use an instance of SON or a string and kwargs instead of a Python dict.

  • value (optional): value to use for the command verb when command is passed as a string

  • check (optional): check the response for errors, raising OperationFailure if there are any

  • allowable_errors: if check is True, error messages in this list will be ignored by error-checking

  • uuid_subtype (optional): The BSON binary subtype to use for a UUID used in this command.

  • compile_re (optional): if False, don’t attempt to compile BSON regular expressions into Python regular expressions. Return instances of Regex instead. Can avoid InvalidBSON errors when receiving Python-incompatible regular expressions, for example from currentOp

  • read_preference: The read preference for this connection. See ReadPreference for available options.

  • tag_sets: Read from replica-set members with these tags. To specify a priority-order for tag sets, provide a list of tag sets: [{'dc': 'ny'}, {'dc': 'la'}, {}]. A final, empty tag set, {}, means “read from any member that matches the mode, ignoring tags.” ReplicaSetConnection tries each set of tags in turn until it finds a set of tags with at least one matching member.

  • secondary_acceptable_latency_ms: Any replica-set member whose ping time is within secondary_acceptable_latency_ms of the nearest member may accept reads. Default 15 milliseconds. Ignored by mongos and must be configured on the command line. See the localThreshold option for more information.

  • **kwargs (optional): additional keyword arguments will be added to the command document before it is sent

Note

command ignores the network_timeout parameter.

Changed in version 2.7: Added compile_re option.

Changed in version 2.3: Added tag_sets and secondary_acceptable_latency_ms options.

Changed in version 2.2: Added support for as_class - the class you want to use for the resulting documents

Changed in version 1.6: Added the value argument for string commands, and keyword arguments for additional command options.

Changed in version 1.5: command can be a string in addition to a full document.

New in version 1.4.

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

commands

connection

The client instance for this Database.

Changed in version 1.3: connection is now a property rather than a method.

create_collection(name, **kwargs)

Create a new Collection in this database.

Normally collection creation is automatic. This method should only be used to specify options on creation. CollectionInvalid will be raised if the collection already exists.

Options should be passed as keyword arguments to this method. Any of the following options are valid:

  • “size”: desired initial size for the collection (in bytes). For capped collections this size is the max size of the collection.
  • “capped”: if True, this is a capped collection
  • “max”: maximum number of objects if capped (optional)
Parameters:
  • name: the name of the collection to create
  • **kwargs (optional): additional keyword arguments will be passed as options for the create collection command

Changed in version 2.2: Removed deprecated argument: options

Changed in version 1.5: deprecating options in favor of kwargs

current_op(include_all=False)

Get information on operations currently running.

Parameters:
  • include_all (optional): if True also list currently idle operations in the result
dereference(dbref, **kwargs)

Dereference a DBRef, getting the document it points to.

Raises TypeError if dbref is not an instance of DBRef. Returns a document, or None if the reference does not point to a valid document. Raises ValueError if dbref has a database specified that is different from the current database.

Parameters:
  • dbref: the reference
  • **kwargs (optional): any additional keyword arguments are the same as the arguments to find().
drop_collection(name_or_collection)

Drop a collection.

Parameters:
  • name_or_collection: the name of a collection to drop or the collection object itself
error()

Get a database error if one occured on the last operation.

Return None if the last operation was error-free. Otherwise return the error that occurred.

eval(code, *args)

Evaluate a JavaScript expression in MongoDB.

Useful if you need to touch a lot of data lightly; in such a scenario the network transfer of the data could be a bottleneck. The code argument must be a JavaScript function. Additional positional arguments will be passed to that function when it is run on the server.

Raises TypeError if code is not an instance of basestring (str in python 3) or Code. Raises OperationFailure if the eval fails. Returns the result of the evaluation.

Parameters:
  • code: string representation of JavaScript code to be evaluated
  • args (optional): additional positional arguments are passed to the code being evaluated
incoming_copying_manipulators

List all incoming SON copying manipulators installed on this instance.

New in version 2.0.

incoming_manipulators

List all incoming SON manipulators installed on this instance.

New in version 2.0.

last_status()

Get status information from the last operation.

Returns a SON object with status information.

logout()

Deauthorize use of this database for this client instance.

Note

Other databases may still be authenticated, and other existing socket connections may remain authenticated for this database unless you reset all sockets with disconnect().

name

The name of this Database.

Changed in version 1.3: name is now a property rather than a method.

outgoing_copying_manipulators

List all outgoing SON copying manipulators installed on this instance.

New in version 2.0.

outgoing_manipulators

List all outgoing SON manipulators installed on this instance.

New in version 2.0.

previous_error()

Get the most recent error to have occurred on this database.

Only returns errors that have occurred since the last call to Database.reset_error_history. Returns None if no such errors have occurred.

profiling_info()

Returns a list containing current profiling information.

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

profiling

profiling_level()

Get the database’s current profiling level.

Returns one of (OFF, SLOW_ONLY, ALL).

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

profiling

remove_user(name)

Remove user name from this Database.

User name will no longer have permissions to access this Database.

Parameters:
  • name: the name of the user to remove

New in version 1.4.

reset_error_history()

Reset the error history of this database.

Calls to Database.previous_error will only return errors that have occurred since the most recent call to this method.

set_profiling_level(level, slow_ms=None)

Set the database’s profiling level.

Parameters:
  • level: Specifies a profiling level, see list of possible values below.
  • slow_ms: Optionally modify the threshold for the profile to consider a query or operation. Even if the profiler is off queries slower than the slow_ms level will get written to the logs.

Possible level values:

Level Setting
OFF Off. No profiling.
SLOW_ONLY On. Only includes slow operations.
ALL On. Includes all operations.

Raises ValueError if level is not one of (OFF, SLOW_ONLY, ALL).

See also

See general MongoDB documentation

profiling

system_js

A SystemJS helper for this Database.

See the documentation for SystemJS for more details.

New in version 1.5.

validate_collection(name_or_collection, scandata=False, full=False)

Validate a collection.

Returns a dict of validation info. Raises CollectionInvalid if validation fails.

With MongoDB < 1.9 the result dict will include a result key with a string value that represents the validation results. With MongoDB >= 1.9 the result key no longer exists and the results are split into individual fields in the result dict.

Parameters:
  • name_or_collection: A Collection object or the name of a collection to validate.
  • scandata: Do extra checks beyond checking the overall structure of the collection.
  • full: Have the server do a more thorough scan of the collection. Use with scandata for a thorough scan of the structure of the collection and the individual documents. Ignored in MongoDB versions before 1.9.

Changed in version 1.11: validate_collection previously returned a string.

New in version 1.11: Added scandata and full options.

class pymongo.database.SystemJS(database)

Get a system js helper for the database database.

An instance of SystemJS can be created with an instance of Database through Database.system_js, manual instantiation of this class should not be necessary.

SystemJS instances allow for easy manipulation and access to server-side JavaScript:

>>> db.system_js.add1 = "function (x) { return x + 1; }"
>>> db.system.js.find({"_id": "add1"}).count()
1
>>> db.system_js.add1(5)
6.0
>>> del db.system_js.add1
>>> db.system.js.find({"_id": "add1"}).count()
0

Note

Requires server version >= 1.1.1

New in version 1.5.

list()

Get a list of the names of the functions stored in this database.

New in version 1.9.

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